Today I have created a new opening splash screen for my app, you can see the new and old versions below:
In the What Happened to the Vikings section of my application, I explain that “we need to remember that most of the travelling people from Scandinavia who we call Vikings, would not have called themselves Vikings. In the Old Norse language, the word Viking means ‘a pirate raid’, and few of these Northern people actually participated in raiding.“. This sets the basIs for why their dominance of their era came to an end. The vikings did not really change, it was the world that changed around them and they were simply no longer the big bully who could dominate and cause fear in the way they used to, as i explain “European countries had new leaders who were more organised, with well trained armies who could defend against Viking attacks.” I have created an image to reinforce this idea see below:
I have also created a short swipe-able story to show how the viking age came to an end and the Norman age began in 1066, when William the Conqueror invades England with his Norman army and kills King Harold, see video below:
As with the Viking gods I have been able to operate under a rather substantial amount of artistic licence in my representations of the creatures that Vikings believed in.
Vikings believed that there were nine worlds connected by the ash tree yggdrasill. Each world was home to its own inhabitants and Vikings told many stories featuring these (as far as I know) fictional beings. See my mood board and representation of the map of yggdrasill and the nine worlds below:
My artwork once again is based upon written descriptions and pre-existing visual representations of the creatures in question.
Below are my mood boards and visual creations, alongside some of the reasoning for my creative decisions.
Giants or Jötunn’s as the Vikings called them, were very big and strong. They ate animals and fish because they lived in the world Jotunheim. I decided to keep my giants very similar to humans, just bigger but I have given my giant big ears as a fond reflection of a favourite childhood story of mine, Roahl Dahl’s ‘BFG’, illustrated by Quentin Blake.
Dark Elves were ugly, tricky creatures who lived underground and liked to cause problems for humans. Due to living underground my elves are pale skinned and I have tried to capture their mischievous essence in my drawing but whether or not I have succeeded is open to the interpretation of the viewer.
Light Elves were considered to be like “angels” by the Vikings, they were beautiful creatures who inspired music and art. I have tried to make my light elf similar to my dark elf, in order to see the connection that they are both elves but I have given my light elf a skin tone that is more reflective of somebody who lives above ground and I have dressed him in a more elegant manor.
Ogres were large, monstrous creatures; the Vikings thought they were nasty, strong and dangerous beings who would kill and eat people. I have created my ogre to look dangerous and grotesque, with a large belly to show that he is capable of consuming a person.
Dwarfs were small with oddly shaped bodies, they lived under the ground in the world of Nidavellir. Dwarfs were very good at making things out of metal. I have created a small person with a body shape that is similar to people who have the medical condition dwarfism, as I believe this mythical creature is probably derived from a misunderstanding of people who suffer this condition. In Viking myths, dwarfs are skilled metal workers which I have tried to display in my drawing, through the characters decorated armour and weapons.
Sea serpents were giant monsters that the Vikings believed lived in the sea. My sea serpent is based on the traditional depiction of a long, snake like dragon creature that lives in the sea.
Below is a video of this section from within the application.
Recently, I have been working on the Viking beliefs section of my application. As part of this segment I shall be delivering information about the Viking’s religious beliefs; the Vikings had their own pagan religion.
To accompany the written information about the Norse gods I have created some images. Nobody knows for certain if these beings exist and to the best of my knowledge nobody has met one or even better taken a picture that I can base my artwork on, so a certain amount of artistic licence can be afforded in the production of my designs. I have been producing imagery based upon my research and previously produced media featuring the individual’s deities in question. The main sources of information regarding these beings are the old Norse written accounts, featured within writings such as the Saga’s and stories depicted on Rune stones and within other carvings from the Viking period.
I started by researching the home of the Viking gods, followed by the creation of a mood board (see below).
How do you design the mythical kingdom of an ancient race of gods? To answer that quest ion I began researching Asgard, in order to identify any identifying features of that realm that would hopefully inform my design. My research indicated two main areas that I felt would be important in my depiction of Asgard and those were:
Vallhalla is a great hall where fallen Viking warriors go to feast after their death, until they are called upon by Odin to battle again at Ragnarok .
In front of Vallhalla stands the golden tree Glasir. The hall’s ceiling is described as being thatched and adorned with golden shields and spears. Valhalla is the home to some creatures, such as the stag Eikþyrnir and the goat Heiðrún amongst others.
See my Vallhalla below:
Bifrost – The Rainbow bridge
The rainbow bridge is an important identifying feature of Asgard but I have also used the fact that the route to the realm of the gods is a something that is seen in the sky, as the logic to set Asgarde floating above the clouds in the sky but out of view of those below.
The rest of my production was open to a lot of artistic licence but I tried to base my design on things that the Vikings may have encountered in their lives. As we know the Vikings where intrepid travellers, who will have seen different forms of architecture in many different countries but there is a constant in most societies. Castles and palaces have been built around the world to house those who are considered or consider themselves to be of importance.
I tried to base my art work upon a castle structure, constructed from materials known to the Vikings like stone and wood, the roofing is based upon precious metals like copper and gold. I have set my castle structure upon a floating mountainous island, that floats amongst the clouds connected to Midgard via a rainbow bridge. See Asgard Below:
To access information about the individual Viking gods, I have created an interface that features a bottom up menu that auto hides to create more space for the information on the screen. The menu background is based upon Viking carvings and the buttons are framed headshots of each god with their name displayed on a scroll (see below).
To create the Viking gods, I once again researched each individual god and created visual mood boards of pre-existing imagery.
Below you can see my mood boards and my interpretive creations.
Odin is described differently depending upon whether he is in Asgard or in Midgard.
One important distinguishing feature of Odin is that he only has one eye, due to him sacrificing the other to drink from the fountain of wisdom.
The descriptions of Odin whilst travelling in Midgard, are believed to have heavily influenced the descriptions of Gandalph the wizard in J.R Toilkin’s, Lord of The Rings and this is evident in mine and other people’s representations of both characters/beings as you can see below:
Frigg was Odin’s wife and the queen of Asgard, she was the goddess of marriage and motherhood. Frigg is often depicted as wearing blue which is something I carried into my depiction, see below:
Thor is the Norse god of thunder, strength and war. Whilst creating Thor I felt it was very important to stick to the written descriptive accounts, where he is described as a mighty warrior with great strength, red hair and a beard. I tried to include his three main weapons:
- Megingjörð – a magic belt that doubled his strength.
- Járngreipr – a pair of iron gloves that were needed to handle Mjölnir.
- Mjölnir – the mighty hammer that could crush mountains and create lighting flashes across the sky.
Many people may not know of the written description of this deity, due to the Marvel comics character Thor created by Stan Lee, scripter Larry Lieber, and penciller Jack Kirby. Marvel’s Thor is based upon the Norse legend but the character’s visual appearance is different to the recorded accounts, as he has long blonde hair and the only weapon he carries is Mjolnir the mighty hammer. It is hard competing against such popular incarnations but as I mentioned earlier nobody has seen the supposed entity in question, so any visual creation is open to interpretations, that ultimately cannot be wrong or right with no accurate visual record existing.
Below you can see my mood boards and my interpretive creations.
Sif is Thors wife and most depictions feature her adorned in blue clothing, which I have also done. The main description that stands out in my research of Sif is her long golden hair, which I have tried to incorporate into my imagery see below:
Loki is considered to be a Norse god although his parents were actually giants.
Loki is known as the Norse god of mischief. He is a trickster with magical powers who is often naughty, causing problems for the other gods which is why I have based my design upon a jester, which also is a theme in older imagery of Loki.
Loki is often described as being handsome but he is a shape shifter, so he can change the way he looks. He appears in the form of men, women and animals and to show this I have created a simple shape shifting animation, that you can see below:
Balder is often described as being very popular amongst the other gods, due to his invulnerability and his good looks. This is something that I have tried to capture in my imagery, see below:
Below you can see a short video of my completed ‘Viking Gods’ information section:
In order to make best use of my time, for university grading times and constraints, I have not as yet included or produced imagery and information based on every god but I feel I have produced enough to provide a strong indication of how this part of the application will look and operate. If time permits I will add more to this section before the end of the project.
I am very happy to be making this post because it means that I am back in the production element of my application. As much as I enjoy acquiring new information, I really prefer the creative production side of my practice. I am currently working on the Viking language aspect of my application; the Vikings used a symbol based written language that they called Runes and alongside my research I have created a Viking Rune mood board that you can see below:
It is my intention to provide the user with an on-screen Rune keyboard, so that the user can write their name in Viking runes. I have started working on the development of the Rune Keys for the keyboard and my design for these is based upon Rune stones which were commonly used by the Vikings for casting, which was a part of Viking magical practice and fortune telling.
As part of my development I have learnt a new technique for applying textures in Adobe flash, which I learnt from an online tutorial (see here).
My design is based upon a rough drawing that I made in my sketch book, see below:
Below you can see my design for the Rune Stone keyboard:
The next stage of the development with regards to this feature is developing a code script, which makes the Runes appear on the screen as the user presses the keys shown in the image above.
In a recent meeting, my external examiner said that he could not see what is masterful about my Master’s project. This was a statement that I found to be quite painful to hear, especially as it was at odds with other appraisals of my work by my own tutors and my peers. During my reflections and conversations after the external examiner’s damming thought on my work, it was suggested to me that his statement may have been a challenge to explain and communicate the value of my work to him, a challenge that I may have simply failed to meet. It seems ironic that as a student who is studying the effective communication of information, in my meeting with my external examiner I may not have communicated effectively the nature of my Masters study.
My Masters study is wide and varied, with me looking at areas such as learning theory and practice, the role of new media in education and heritage, digital natives, Gamification, historical information relevant Vikings and illustration amongst others. It soon became apparent to me that it may be hard to see how all of the areas and theories I am investigating link together, I now understand how from the outside it may be hard to see the wood for the trees when looking at my Masters study, there is rather a lot going on but to me I can see the connections between the dots that maybe are not evident to those who are not directly involved.
There is of course another plausible explanation for what is going on, that are no connections and my perceived associative factors are part of my own delusion and I am in fact crazy? Hopefully by the end of this post I will be able to effectively communicate the nature of my Masters Investigation, highlighting the connections between the different relevant parts, and you will be able understand my Masters study or officially diagnose me as being a delusional.
Through my Masters investigation, I have been looking at the effective communication of educational information through new media digital devices and as an example of my investigation I am creating an Interactive App for the Ipad, to provide educational information about the Vikings.
Whenever I start a project or individual parts of projects, I find it very useful to create mind maps to try to expand and record my ideas and this may be a very useful way of showing the varied nature of my enquiry and its many investigational strands. See below:
These are just two of the mind maps I created and there are many more with differing strands of possible enquiry. Hopefully this helps enlighten those who may be struggling to see how everything fits into my project, but if not the rest of this post may also provide an insight into my thought processes within my professional practice.
Through my approach I can see how it could be argued that my study does not make me a master of my practice but it may make me a well-rounded jack of all trades.
Through a conversation with my peer Gareth Sleightholme, I reached a realisation that surprised me. There is a common theme to my master’s project that can be traced back to my B.A dissertation “Looking Towards the Principles of the Bauhaus as a Way to Improve the Relationship Between User, Designer and Digital Interface”. Although my dissertation was focused upon the design of digital interfaces, when opened up to include my practice and my own personal approach within it, there is a commonality that I had not been previously aware of.
In my 2011 thesis I explore different disciplines including Usability, Psychology, Human Computer Interaction, Cognition, Ergonomics and Aesthetics, in order to see how they can be brought together to inform the design process of digital interfaces. I draw on the example set by the Bauhaus in the early twentieth century:
“After the Werkbund period, an attempt to narrow the gap between the arts and crafts of the early twentieth century was made by Walter Gropius, a German architect who founded the Bauhaus; an art and crafts school that operated in Germany between 1919 and 1933. The Bauhaus originated a unique approach to bring together artists and craftsmen, to form a new breed of craftsman for a new time:” (Shakesby, 2011: p18)
Walter Gropius believed that narrowing the gap between what was known then as the arts and crafts would have a positive effect, on both sets of practices he saw how they could influence and enhance each other:
“Let us then create a new guild of craftsmen without the class distinctions that raise an arrogant barrier between craftsman and artist!” (Gropius (1919), cited in Shakesby, 2011: p19)
In 2011, I saw the similarities between the divided practices that Gropius identified and the fractioned design practices that exist today:
“The arrogant barrier that Gropius mentions is similar to the divide between interface designers; those who follow particular design philosophies often have such confidence in their chosen viewpoint that it may obscure other possible theories. A joining of theories in order to create a utopian balance requires openness on all sides, to listen and learn from each other, in order to affect change.” (Shakesby, 2011: p19)
Gropius believed that by bringing the Arts and Crafts together to combine their knowledge in a pedagogy to be passed on to a new generation, the result would be a more well rounded generation of producers who had the knowledge to amalgamate Arts and Crafts theories into a more balanced practice. My 2011 piece discusses how interface design needs a modern day equivalent to the Bauhaus method of teaching, providing students with knowledge of many practices.
“Students at the Bauhaus were taught by masters of form and also by masters of craft, the Bauhaus was attempting to teach an all round production philosophy, well balanced in terms of aesthetics considerations, production values and functionalism, in order to create the new breed of practitioner, the craftsman of a new guild envisioned by Walter Gropius.
For Interface design to progress there is a need for designers to be students of different masters or theories, a well balanced design orientation is required in terms of aesthetics considerations, production values and functionalism, these new designers could be a new breed of practitioner that are equipped for the challenges and changes of the twenty-first century.” (Shakesby, 2011: p20)
In 2011 (p.23), I argued that through this type of union of design awareness “a new design theory could arise, suitable for today’s technology, bridging the gap between designers and users in the same way that the Bauhaus helped bridge the gap between producers and consumers in the twentieth century.” At the time I did not see the bigger picture in regards to my argument and now I would argue that not only would this approach benefit interface design, it would actually benefit my wider practice of interactive multimedia design.
The pace of technological advancement since the early 1990’s has had a massive effect on the world and it has changed our everyday lives, both professionally and personally. Computers, the Internet and mobile devices are just some of the technological advancements that are pervading society and becoming integral to the way many people live their lives. These new technologies present new challenges, and knowledge of differing design practices is required to have the information to work out the design equations, to find the appropriate solutions to the new possibilities that we are afforded by the technology. If you don’t understand what is possible, how can you be confident that the decisions you make are correct?
There is one problem with attempting to have knowledge of more than one discipline. There is a common saying “Jack of all trades, master of none”. This is a term used to describe people who are competent with many skills but is not necessarily exceptional in any particular one and it is often used in a derogatory way to devalue these people.
The potential problem for a “Jack of all trades” is that they may be seen as the saying goes, as a “master of none”. Outside perception may be that a specialist may have the ability to produce a higher standard of work.
This of course does not mean that your work will be inferior but there is a greater risk that a lack of knowledge may arise at some point causing a potential dilemma. This risk element is one of the main reasons that some people are put off by the “Jack of all trades”
Wagner describes the negative perception of the Jack of all trades. “Being considered a “jack of all trades” has always had a negative connotation. It implies that you dabble in bits of everything, but never achieve the expertise needed to be good at any one pursuit.” Wagner, (2009), http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/10/in-defense-of-the-jack-of-all-trades/
Jeroen Van Geel explains how a little knowledge can lead us to become overconfident in our abilities:
“When we think we have an understanding of how things work, we have the feeling that we can impact everything. Of course this is great and we all know that curiosity should be stimulated, but at the same time this energy and endless search for knowledge can be a curse. Before we know it we become the jack of all trades, master of none.” Van Geel, (2013), http://www.tuicool.com/articles/U7RBNv
By following a “Jack of all trades” process, you will need to require a proficient knowledge of the practices you wish to work within and although you may be willing to put in the hard work and dedication needed to acquire this knowledge, others may not have the same level of professional commitment and this can lead to situations where work is carried out at a substandard level, tarnishing the reputation of all who follow the multi-disciplinary approach.
There are positives aspects of the “Jack of all trades”/multi-disciplinary approach and according to Wagner the judgment of people with a broader range of knowledge may be unfair, he offers an alternative point of view:
“Maybe a successful generalist should instead be considered a “Renaissance man” (or woman).” Wagner, (2009), http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/10/in-defense-of-the-jack-of-all-trades/
Wagner’s alternative description places the “Jack of all trades” as an individual whose skill-set spans a considerable number of different subject areas; it is a positive reference that recognises the capability of some to be able to work at a more than proficient level across differing practices.
“Being a jack of all trades doesn’t mean that you are doing a million things at once. It means that you make sure that you are knowledgeable about and capable of doing the basics of any new innovations within your professional field of choice.” Dixon, (2012), http://www.clutchmagonline.com/2012/04/the-art-of-being-a-jack-of-all-trades/
The earlier negative views of “Jack of all trades” underestimate the capabilities of people in general, Heinlein explains:
“A human being should be able to change a diaper, plan an invasion, butcher a hog, design a building, conn a ship, write a sonnet, balance accounts, build a wall, set a bone, comfort the dying, take orders, give orders, cooperate, act alone, solve an equation, analyze a new problem, pitch manure, program a computer, cook a tasty meal, fight efficiently, die gallantly. Specialization is for insects.” Heinlein cited by Wagner, (2009), http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/10/in-defense-of-the-jack-of-all-trades/
Every day we prove our capacity to master more than one task and history has many examples of people who were masters in more than one field, the most famous being Leonardo da Vinci “Few would argue that DaVinci should have stuck to one subject.” Wagner, (2009), http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/10/in-defense-of-the-jack-of-all-trades/
By being a “Jack of all trades” you can actually become more valuable, Wagner believes “If you do it right, being a jack of all trades should be considered a strength.” To turn the negativity surrounding the “Jack of all trades” into positivity, a balance is needed between a significant level of knowledge in one area and a small amount in others. Wagner agrees “To really be successful, I suggest you strike a balance between generalist and specialist.” Wagner, (2009), http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/10/in-defense-of-the-jack-of-all-trades/
In football a player who can play in more than one position is a valuable asset to the team, that versatility increases that player’s value within a team but only as long as he is proficient in each position.
In design the same proficiency is required within any areas you may decide to incorporate into your skill-set, Wagner believes you need to “Go beyond “enough to be dangerous” This requires learning beyond the basics of subject areas, so that you can be proficient to a level where you can solve most problems and be capable of engaging in communication with specialists, if you do encounter any problems in order to identify a solution.
By being a “Jack of all trades” “You can be the person who sees the big picture and understands how all the parts interrelate.” Wagner, (2009), http://www.webdesignerdepot.com/2009/10/in-defense-of-the-jack-of-all-trades/
There is another approach that allows us to bring together the knowledge of different design practices, this is collaboration.
Wigan (2009: p63) describes collaboration as “The act of working with others to create something.”
One advantage of working collaboratively is that there is less risk of problems due to lack of relevant knowledge; collaborations can feature specialists in the appropriate capacities/roles.
Sometimes, collaborations may produce a result like an attempt to mix oil and water but others can produce mixtures that complement and enhance, like the ingredients in a good recipe. Over time practitioners can identify and form collaboration’s that are recipes for success rather than disaster.
Working collaboratively can be frustrating, as each practitioner may have their own methods and beliefs and these differences of opinion need to be mediated.
Compromise would be one possible solution in this situation but a successful outcome for this circumstance cannot simply be the ability to make a decision, it needs to be the ability to come to the appropriate decision for the task at hand.
Who would be qualified to make such a decision, if each practitioner has a differing opinion on what is appropriate?
In interactive media, the person responsible for making these decisions would be the ‘Project Manager’.
“The Project Manager is responsible for the successful planning and execution of a project. He or she decides what work needs to be done, who will do what, and when it must be finished.” Creative Skillset, (2013), http://www.creativeskillset.org/interactive/careers/article_4754_1.asp
As part of their role, the ‘Project Manager’ will be responsible for the organisation of the project as described below:
“The project is usually divided into a number of stages that are often dependent on each other; the Project Manager must work out a schedule and ensure that the right people are available when needed so that each stage is completed on time and does not hold up any of the others.” Creative Skillset, (2013), http://www.creativeskillset.org/interactive/careers/article_4754_1.asp
The ‘Project Manager’ will have to plan the project, taking into account any potential issues that may endanger the success of the project.
“A large part of the job involves identifying risks and assumptions that might adversely affect the project, and working out ways to ensure they do not – for example, by making contingency plans and by being rigorous in ensuring specifications and deliverables are properly documented.” Creative Skillset, (2013), http://www.creativeskillset.org/interactive/careers/article_4754_1.asp
One issue that the ‘Project Manager’ needs to be aware of in a collaborative effort, is the potential interpersonal disagreements that may be spawned from both personal and professional differences of opinion, “He or she may need to brief and manage specialists, ensure open communication between team members and resolve interpersonal conflicts.” Creative Skillset, (2013), http://www.creativeskillset.org/interactive/careers/article_4754_1.asp
My master’s project is an individual pursuit and thus I can see how my personal approach may be seen by others as a “Jack of all trades” styled methodology but it could also be argued that my approach is a wider reflection of my industrial field.
In 2012, as part my Professional Practice module I wrote a piece entitled “A Perspective of a Deeply Ingrained, Integral but Often Misunderstood Practice in the 21st Century.” Within this essay, I highlight the difficulty in defining my professional practice, saying:
“I have experienced people attempting to pigeon hole my practice into a definition that only includes part of my practice; it sometimes feels like I am a square peg being pushed into a round hole. My practice involves elements of other practices and this is what in my opinion causes a lot of the confusion, Creative Skillset also recognise the overlapping nature of interactive media practice with other practices, their website says “The interactive media industry is a very fluid sector with many overlaps with, and blurred distinctions between, other sectors”. (Creative Skillset, 2012, http://www.creativeskillset.org/interactive/industry/article_6838_1.asp)”
Due its multi-disciplinary nature, Interactive media is hard to define effectively but there is a definition provided by the authors England and Finney in the ATSF White Paper—Interactive Media UK 2002:
“Interactive media is the integration of digital media including combinations of electronic text, graphics, moving images, and sound, into a structured digital computerised environment that allows people to interact with the data for appropriate purposes. The digital environment can include the Internet, telecoms and interactive digital television.” England and Finney, (2002: p2), http://www.atsf.co.uk/atsf/interactive_media.pdf
Since that definition in 2002, the mediums and possibilities have further developed but even then the multi-disciplinary environment within the field was more than evident. As an interactive designer, there is a requirement to have a broader diverse range of knowledge to be effective and I believe this validates my approach when looking into what others may call specialist disciplines. To be a master of my discipline requires me to have a high level of knowledge of different areas.
To be a Master of interactive media you need to be a master “Jack of all trades”, a “Renaissance Man”. There may be some specialists who see this as an encroachment on their practice but this is not the case, it is a requisition for my practice to acquire this knowledge and any feelings of distain towards the perceived intrusion, should not lead to them denigrating practitioners of multi-disciplinary fields through terms such as “Jack of all trades”. By using urban terminology I would say to these aggravated practitioners “Don’t hate the playa, hate the game” and for those who don’t understand that saying, there is a definition below:
“Do not fault the successful participant in a flawed system; try instead to discern and rebuke that aspect of its organization which allows or encourages the behavior that has provoked your displeasure.” Urban Dictionary, (2005), http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?term=Don’t+Hate+The+Playa%2FPlayette+Hate+The+Game
Technological advancement has created new possibilities, genres and practices; this is part of an evolution and others practices may need to evolve too, in order to not become obsolete.
Everybody has the right and the ability to expand their own knowledgebase but this does not mean you must become a “Jack of all trades”; expanded knowledge is a powerful tool, especially to those in the creative industries.
Combinatorial creativity is a theory that believes “To create is to combine existing bits of insight, knowledge, ideas, and memories into new material and new interpretations of the world, to connect the seemingly dissociated, to see patterns where others see chaos.” Popova, (2012), http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/
The 20th Century Fox Television show Touch (2012), features a young boy described below:
“Jake possessed an extraordinary gift – the ability to perceive the seemingly hidden patterns that connect every life on the planet” 20th Century Fox, (2012), http://www.fox.com/touch/about/
The show also features other characters that have the natural ability to see connections in different elements of life, connections that the rest of us are oblivious to. I personally fall into the latter bracket, I am unaware of any natural ability I may have to see patterns that others don’t but I am naturally inquisitive and I do look for patterns, answers and reasons when sometimes others blindly accept.
Popova explains that throughout time illustrious creative’s, scientists and inventors have embraced the building blocks of combinatorial creativity:
““Stuff your head with more different things from various fields,” Ray Bradbury encouraged students in a 2001 address. “You should stay alert for the moment when a number of things are just ready to collide with one another,” Brian Eno advised. “Creativity is just connecting things,” Steve Jobs proclaimed. “Science,” Darwin recognized, “consists in grouping facts so that general laws or conclusions may be drawn from them.” “Substantially all ideas are second-hand,” Mark Twain observed, “consciously and unconsciously drawn from a million outside sources, and daily use by the garnerer with a pride and satisfaction born of the superstition that he originated them”” Popova, (2012), http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/
These people could see how new juxtapositions can be created through a bricolage of existing practices and philosophies, combined in ways that are different to the intended purposes of the individual original.
Combinatorial creativity is a process that combines the existing elements to form a new, but this means that nothing is truly created but instead repurposed or remixed:
“Implicit to this idea of combinatorial creativity is the admission is that nothing is truly original, at least not in the sense of being built from scratch, and that can be hard. There’s a lot of resistance in the creative ego to that idea.” Popova, (2012), http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/
Popova provides a paradigm of this idea that nothing can be truly original because it will always be informed by our previous knowledge, in the form of an anecdote about Picasso and an interview with Paula Scher on the creation of the famous Citi logo, in summery of these examples she says:
“Both of these stories captures something we all understand on a deep intuitive level, but our creative egos sort of don’t really want to accept: And that is the idea that creativity is combinatorial, that nothing is entirely original, that everything builds on what came before, and that we create by taking existing pieces of inspiration, knowledge, skill and insight that we gather over the course of our lives and recombining them into incredible new creations.” Popova, (2012), http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/
Lego is an example used by Popova to illustrate how the combinatorial creative process works:
“The more of these building blocks we have, and the more diverse their shapes and colors, the more interesting our castles will become. Because if we only have one color and one shape, it greatly limits how much we can create, even within our one area of expertise.” Popova, (2012), http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/
Popova also offers an alternative description “We can, however, optimize our minds for combinatorial creativity – by enriching our mental pool of resources with diverse, eclectic, cross-disciplinary pieces which to fuse together into new combinations.” Popova, (2012), http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/
The gathering of information is an important part of the combinatorial creative process. All information can be considered useful in one way or another but when you have specific goals or desired outcomes, it is important show restraint and not run around like the proverbial headless chicken, gathering every bit of information you can find. A conscious decision is required to tame inquisitive desires and focus upon the area that is more likely to yield the informational results you require.
“Curiosity without direction can be a taxing and ultimately unproductive endeavor. Choice is how we tame and channel and direct our curiosity, where we choose to allocate our time and energy, and ultimately, what we choose to pay attention to” Popova, (2012), http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/
Popova is explaining that to truly create, to connect the dots, see the patterns, find the answers of even the right questions, then the relevant knowledge needs to be procured. At that point a cross-pollination of ideas from a range of disciplines can occur through recombination’s that become new creations in their own right.
It is my belief that to flourish as an interactive designer requires an element of the jack of all trades persona; it requires a level of curiosity that drives enquiry beyond the obvious, in order to be informed to a level where it is possible to find connections and correlations that others cannot. The ability to be innovative requires thinking not only inside and outside the box but also thinking through the box.
Projects like mine are appropriate for collaborative approaches but they are also appropriate for interactive designers who have taken the time and effort to investigate and acquire the knowledge to produce such works, without the need for collaboration but there also needs to be a realisation that situations may arise, where a higher level of knowledge is required in a specific area and willingness to collaborate when appropriate is needed. Pride is the enemy of many designers when it comes to collaboration, collaboration is not an admission of the inability to perform a certain task, it is an admission that some things can be done better by working with others.
Interactive media is a multi-disciplinary practice and as a practitioner of this field I am required to have knowledge of more than one practice. Interactive media is also a developing field that is in a constant state of flux, due to the pace of technological development and thus, the ability to adapt to the possible and potential developments and affordances that may arise is also essential to prosper in this field.
Combinatorial creativity suggests that my attempt at accumulating knowledge through my investigational process should aid me in my creative endeavours, both now in my Master’s study and in my future practice.
There is a saying that “Knowledge is power” and I believe that the knowledge that I am procuring during my masters study, will strengthen my proficiency within my practice.
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England, E. & Finney, A. (2002) Interactive Media – What’s That? Who’s Involved? [online] Available at: http://www.atsf.co.uk/atsf/interactive_media.pdf, [accessed 22nd April 2013]
Shakesby, P. (2011) Looking Towards the Principles of the Bauhaus as a Way to Improve the Relationship Between User, Designer and Digital Interface, [online] Available at: http://www.newmedia.artdesignhull.ac.uk/pshakesby/level3/Dissertation_Looking%20Towards%20the%20Principles%20of%20the%20Bauhaus%20as%20a%20Way%20to%20Improve%20the%20Relationship%20between%20User,%20Designer,%20and%20Digital%20Interface..pdf, [accessed 22nd April 2013]
Popova, M. (2012), Combinatorial Creativity and the Myth of Originality, [online] Available at: http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/ideas/2012/06/combinatorial-creativity-and-the-myth-of-originality/, [accessed 22nd April 2013]
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My master’s enquiry revolves around the best way of communicating information via my medium of choice, which is a digital application for the iPad. Illustration is an ancient method of communication. It is just as relevant today in a world dominated by new media, as it was when the first illustrations were produced.
What is illustration?
On his website Wigan’s World, Mark Wigan is described as an “International artist, illustrator and writer” Wigan’s World, no publication date, http://www.wigansworld.moonfruit.com/
Wigan has exhibited all over the world and he has authored a number of books on illustration and creative thinking. In Wigan’s book The Visual Dictionary of Illustration, Wigan (2009: p9) offers a description of the function of illustrations:
“Illustrations visually communicate content for reproduction in imaginative, distinctive, and highly personal ways while solving problems, decorating, entertaining, adorning, commenting, informing, inspiring, explaining, educating, provoking, beguiling, enchanting and storytelling.”
He goes on to further describe the importance of illustrations, “it is also a vital dynamic and contemporary means of expression, interpretation and communication which conveys ideas and messages with compelling imagery created in any media” (Wigan, 2009: p9)
As Wigan describes, illustration has a number of purposes and within my application I have used illustration in a number of ways.
The image below shows how I have used illustration to decorate, adorn, inform and communicate.
- Illuminated Letter
My illuminated letters are an example of illustration. To find out more about my use of illumined letters (see here)
The patterned border is used to frame the content part of the application, drawing the attention inwards. The pattern is based upon Viking symbols.
- Content Border
This border is used to separate the map from the text.
Maps are a form of illustration drawn to represent geographical locations.
- Button Rim
The rim of the button has been illustrated to resemble the metal rim of a Viking shield, to tie the navigation into the thematic design.
- Current Button Marker
This is an illustration used to show the user which is the current part of the application.
- Illustrated Background Featuring Symbols
This thematic background features illustrations relevant to the Vikings and their beliefs; its purpose is to decorate whilst also informing the user of the nature of the applications theme.
Illustration has been around for a very long time; early examples of illustration are cave paintings and hieroglyphics.
Wigan (2006: p30) discusses both of these early forms of communicative illustration, starting with cave paintings he says:
“The earliest surviving examples of this art form can be found in Lascaux, France and Altamira, Spain. These cave drawings date from c. 12,000 BC. Pre-dating written language, the exact function of these sophisticated drawings remains a mystery. Although their purpose could be religious or ritualistic, these hunting scenes demonstrate the primal need to communicate and to draw from life. Stylised conversions have always been employed in drawing.”
It is interesting to think that so early in human evolution, man developed not only the skill and materials needed to create illustrations but they had the creative ability to unknowingly develop an effective communication medium that is still widely used today. We do not know exactly what they were trying to communicate, or why they did it and we definitely do not know if it was effective for the purpose they desired but we do know that this innovation has become an effective communication tool, which has developed throughout the ages. Egyptian hieroglyphics are another example of illustrative communication employed by Ancient civilisations, Wigan (2006: P30) discusses Egyptian hieroglyphics, saying:
“The ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics integrated phonetic and pictographic signs with both abstract and observational drawing. Colour was used symbolically, heads were depicted in profile, torsos were viewed from the front and legs in three-quarter view (examples include illustrated scrolls such as the Book of the Dead and the Ramessseum Papyrus). Symbolic conventions are evident in the diagrammatic drawing of Mesopotamia and in the use of space, colour and visual hierarchy in Islamic art”
Wigan describes “Symbolic conventions” that are evident in Egyptian hieroglyphics, “Symbolic conventions” and designed symbols have become an important part of communicating through illustration.
“Symbology” is the study of symbols. The function of a symbol is to communicate a relevant meaning. A symbol can be an artefact or illustration that represents, suggests and communicates an idea, a process or a physical entity.
Illustrative symbols come in many forms, one of the most common is written language. There are many types of written language but essentially they are all systems of communicating visually, through illustrative symbols that have been assigned some sort of applicable meaning and when combined they are given further meanings. The free dictionary provides the definition of written language:
“written language – communication by means of written symbols (either printed or handwritten)” The Free Dictionary, (2013) http://www.thefreedictionary.com/written+language
Oregon State University offers a similar explanation of written language that describes the historical and technological importance of this communication medium:
“Writing is the visual representation of language through the use of an established selection of markings. As a means of communicating ideas and storing information, written language is the single most important and far-reaching technology available to humans and has served as the foundation for virtually all other information technologies from early etchings in clay to the world of digital access that we enjoy today.” Oregon State University Library, no publication date, http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/omeka/exhibits/show/mcdonald/writing/significance
Another great example of illustrative communication through symbols would be the Arrow. The arrow as a symbol can indicate direction or point to a specific place or item. Colours can also be symbolic, to many people green may be a colour that indicates a start or movement i.e. a green traffic light indicates that it is time for a driver to go but green can also be used as a symbol of freshness amongst others. Red is a colour that is often used to symbolise the notion of stopping, as used in traffic lights but red also indicates anger, or in china it is a colour that symbolises good fortune. This is the problem with all symbolic communication; all communication requires an understanding between the communicator and the audience, if either party does not understand the intended meaning of the communication being delivered, there will be a communication breakdown.
Gaur (1992: p14) says:
“In the case of writing, the information is stored mechanically, on an independent object, and can be retrieved and used at anytime, in any place (in the case of moveable objects such as books etc.) by all those who are able to consult and decode it.”
It is vitally important when communicating any information illustrative or otherwise, that the deliverer understands the audience that he/she is attempting to communicate with, so the information can be delivered in a way that can be decoded by the audience it is intended for. Knowing your audience is vital to ensuring communicative success.
Although written text may actually be an example of an illustrative communication form, it has become a medium within its own right. The written form offers its own problems though, one of which is described above; it must be decoded by the reader and unlike some other written languages, such as Egyptian hieroglyphics (which used more visual symbols that related to specific artefacts, places or ideas e.g. an illustration of the sun actually represents the sun), the English written language featured in my application, is based upon phonic sounds found in the spoken English language and this requires a more substantial understanding of the code required in order to decipher the information.
Due to this problem with the written form of communication, illustrations separate from the text can be used to try and communicate information, in a way that the audience can understand through a different deciphering process. An illustration of a man walking across a road may be easier for some people to understand, rather than just a piece of text that say’s “A man is crossing the road”.
Illustration has been central in the provision of visual communication for a long time, Wigan (2006: p88) explains the important role that image has played over the years:
“Pictures have always been used to tell stories. An early precursor of sequential and narrative illustration is the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry, which contains a linear narrative depicting the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Another great example is Michelangelo’s paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel”
He also believes that image has improved the experience provided by mediums such as print, that previously may have relied upon text as their only form of communication:
“Many great works of literature have been interpreted and enhanced by pictures; there have been wonderful combinations in history including Delacroix’s drawings for Goethe’s Faust, Tenniel’s interpretation of Lewis Carroll’s books and George Cruikshank’s illustrations for Dickens.” (Wigan, 2006: p.88)
I agree totally with Wigan’s appraisal of the role that illustration has played in the development of print media. Illustration has provided not only an alternative form of communication but text and illustration combined provide a strengthening of the communicative process that underpins information delivery, or as Wigan (2006: p88) puts it “Illustrators have shed light on and elucidated literature”.
Children’s literature is a genre that specifically is enhanced by illustration. Illustration not only provides the possibility for colour and decoration but children are almost certainly the target audience that needs alternative forms of communicative media. Children are in the process of learning about the world far more so than adults, as they have less experience to have formed preconceived knowledgeable experience from and in many cases, children will not have developed a level of understanding of the written language needed to express all of the desired concepts or ideas.
The illustration of children’s literature is the closest genre in my estimation to that of my application. Wigan (2006: p88) describes the practice “The illustration of children’s literature covers a number of areas from pop up, novelty, information and educational books to illustrated fiction and picture books. Often childrens books are both illustrated and written by the same person.”
Wigan (2006: p88) also describes the need for understanding your target audience in relation to the information you wish to convey “Visual narratives need to contain a fluid union of words and images paced throughout the story and it is also important to bear in mind the target age group and the particular function of your book, e.g. entertainment or educational.”
Wigan also describes the need for not only knowing your audience and their possible needs but the need to have an understanding of the function of your book, or in my case application. The Journal Of The Association For Library Service To Children featured an article entitled ‘Playgrounds for the Mind‘, the author Wendy Lukehart (2010: p33) discusses the functionality of children’s picture books saying:
“How do picturebooks work—particularly those of the last decade? There is a fundamental issue at the very heart of this matter, raised by David Lewis in Reading Contemporary Picturebooks. He asked, “If words and pictures are different, what difference does the difference make?”
By examining how picture books work Lukehart seems to be addressing the issue I was discussing earlier, text and illustrations communicate information in different ways. Lukehart (2010: p33) delves further into this question “This leads one to consider all manner of related ideas. What do words do that pictures cannot, and vice versa? What effect do words and pictures have on each other?”
Wigan (2007: p6) discusses both forms of communication and how they can relate to each other :
“Text and image are two forms of representation; two visual signs that can integrate and reinforce one another to communicate messages, emotions, ideas or visual commentary. Words and pictures can be employed to challenge one another, separating and countering meaning; text subverting the image and vice versa.”
Essentially as I described earlier when discussing Symbology, text and image are very similar methods of communication, a very similar field to Symbology is Semiotics, the free online dictionary provides this definition of Semiotics “The theory and study of signs and symbols, especially as elements of language or other systems of communication, and comprising semantics, syntactics, and pragmatics.”
The Free Dictionary, (2013) http://www.thefreedictionary.com/semiotics
In his paper ‘Revisiting the Relationships Between Text and Pictures’ Lawrence Sipe (2012: p5) describes both forms of communication from a semiotic point of view:
“From a semiotic point of view, we can conceptualize these two languages as systems of ‘‘signs.’’ For semioticians, everything and anything can function as sign; in picturebooks, the two most obvious sign systems are the words and the pictures, though within each of these broad sign systems, there are clearly sub-sign systems. For example, within the sign system of visual images, there is the sign system of colors, where different colors may be associated with different emotions or feelings.”
Sipe believes that the easiest and most natural way to examine the relationship between word and text is to draw on metaphors. The free dictionary defines a metaphor as “A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or “All the world’s a stage” (Shakespeare).” The Free Dictionary, (2013) http://www.thefreedictionary.com/metaphor
Sipe (2012: p5-6) explains how metaphors are implicit to the relationship between text and imagery:
“We can hardly avoid metaphors when writing about word–picture relationships (or anything else, for that matter). Simply to say, for example, that pictures and words ‘‘work’’ together in various ways is already to be drawn into metaphorical thinking: if there is work involved, it is clearly not between words and pictures, but in the reader/viewer’s mind, and it is the mental processes involved that constitute the work”
Sipe discusses a number of artistic and scientific metaphors used to describe the relationship between text and image. There were two metaphors that I particularly correlated with the first is below:
“Another of the arts that writers draw upon in discussing the relation of words and pictures is drama. Wyile (2006) provides an extended metaphor using the idea of a picturebook as a play The words in a picture book are like the script of a play. In both cases the facts and clues of characters’ feelings are not usually explained because the pictures or the actors can express them much better…The words in a picturebook come alive in relation to the pictures, as they do in relation to the action in a play. The effectiveness of words is related to their placement on the page in conjunction with the placement of the pictures, which is a form of artistic direction like the elements of direction and blocking in a play. The narrative tension is further created and/or enhanced by the pace of the production that is set by the timing of action, lighting, and sound effects in a play and by the combination of page layout and page turn in a picture book—typically the words pull us forward because we can read them faster and the pictures hold us back as our eyes scan for details (see Nodelman, ‘How Picture Books Work’) (p. 177).” (Sipe, 2012: p6-7)
I can see how the placement of each is important but the thing that I realise most is that in my application I have tended to keep text and imagery as two separate items, my main body of text is almost a narration to events depicted in my imagery, the only times I have combined text and image directly is as speech, as part of a narrative or as instruction.
The Second metaphor I was drawn to was:
“Curley (2007) compares the word–picture relationship to the Victorian invention called the stereopticon: ‘‘when focused, an image leaps from ﬂatness into startling depth. It takes two camera lenses, set at slightly different angles, to create this magic. Now imagine an artist and a writer. Like the lenses of the stereopticon, they focus, from individual vantage points, on a narrative’’ (p. 7). In this metaphor, Curley emphasizes the different ‘‘vantage points’’ that words and pictures may take on a narrative, as well as the ability of the combination of words and pictures to create a more profound representation of literary reality as three-dimensional: more interesting, more complex, more nuanced.” (Curley, cited in Sipe, 2012: p8)
This description is one that I can also describe through my own metaphor, In the numerous children’s science fiction literature there are examples of individuals combining their powers for the greater good, to create a more powerful entity or force, and this is what I am seeing in my mind’s eye as read the above statement, the powers of text and image are combining to create a more powerful form of communication through a balanced relationship that does not depreciate the value of the meaning contained within the individual items but instead helps support and solidify the intended messages.
For me and my application, I have further considerations to those of text and illustration when it comes to communicating visually. I consider my application to be similar to a children’s book but the medium in which I am working has different possibilities and considerations.
Lukehart (2010: p33) poses this question “Then there is the digital realm. At what point will visual electronic storytelling make us ask, “Is it really even a book?”
My answer to this question in relation to my application would be “no it is not a book” but it is an evolution of the children’s educational book genre, delivered using the benefits of digital technology. The main differences between my application in comparison to a book are the technological possibilities afforded by the format, these include the ability to add animation, interaction, audio and video, my application is an example of digital multimedia.
Multimedia devices allow for the creation of software like my application that takes advantage of the technological capabilities and possibilities, in order to evolve and improve the communication of information. The Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (p32) describes what multimedia is and how it can benefit the communication of educational information:
“The most common buzzword used in education is Multimedia, which is the integration of text, audio, video, graphics and animation into a single medium. Instructional multimedia is the integration of various forms of media in the instructional process. It is the technology that combines print, radio, television, animation, photographs, and other forms of illustration. Integration of different media multiplies the impact of a message.”
In the past, multimedia capable devices have not always been used to their full potential. Media designers and producers are often creating media that does not take advantage of the technological capabilities, Lukehart (2010: p34) explains “For the latter, even with the introduction of iPhone apps, the titles were mostly what Scott McCloud calls “repurposed print”—scanned books, their electronic pages turning, often with sound and a little movement.”
Multimedia has the potential to do so much more than simply reproducing traditional media in a digital form, it is a field that can make real changes to educational information delivery but it is not a case of just using the technological possibilities because they are available; careful consideration is needed as to what technologies will enhance learning in a specific situation, the Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (p37) believes:
“It is important to match the learning objectives and decide the media to synchronize the design and learning from it. Each media can offer either the whole or part of the content with or without referring to one another. For example, dissection of a frog can be shown through animation and also through a video programme. But as multimedia offers interactivity, learners can actually feel the dissection if it is animated and the multimedia programme runs like an actual dissection.”
Making decisions about the best way to deliver educational information using multimedia requires knowledge of educational theory and technological possibilities combined with skills to produce the desired content.
Combining the different mediums also needs to be done in a way that makes sense to the user, otherwise the user may be left not knowing what the product is, Lukehart provides an example:
“In a recent Wall Street Journal article, Nick Wingfield critiqued an electronic picturebook, saying, “This app can’t decide whether it’s a book, a movie, or a game.”” (Wingfield cited in Lukehart, 2010: p34)
I would suggest the “electronic picturebook” that Wingfield is critiquing possibly has tried to just add multimedia to a traditional media design, without the careful consideration for each element and its purpose. We are dealing with new media here and as yet people are still experimenting with the new possibilities, trying to find the most effective way to deliver their information or story. This is why I have been investigating pedagogical theory, Gamification and other areas in search of the knowledge required to make informed decisions, not trying to emulate traditional media but trying to create something new. Wingfield believes that approaches like mine are the path to better products that make the best use of digital technology, Lukehart (2010: p34) discusses Wingfield saying “He wagers that the best book apps will be built from the ground up, taking full advantage of the digital environment.”
My research into visual language is part of my process of investigation into the most appropriate methods of educational delivery using digital technology. I focussed earlier on the practice of illustration, which is a field that has been a major part of traditional media production for a very long time and there are those who believe that illustration may be a practice which will be lost during the evolution towards digital technology. During the ICON 6 illustration conference, questions were raised regarding the future of illustration, Michael Dooley describes some of the debate saying:
“A variety of controversial notions were proposed, such replacing the term “illustrator” with something more, um, appropriate to the times and blaming art directors for the job decline. But the tension in the room was palpable as a one-word description of illustration’s future was raised and repeated: “animation.”” Dooley, (2010) http://www.printmag.com/interviews/icon-reax-is-animation-the-future-of-illustration/
Illustration’s closest relative genre in my opinion is animation; the Free Dictionary defines animation as “The act, process, or result of imparting life, interest, spirit, motion, or activity.” The Free Dictionary, (2013) http://www.thefreedictionary.com/animation
Wigan (2009: p28) gives this definition of animation “The optical illusion of movement employed by persistence of vision”
Animator Norman McLaren describes animation, “animation is not the art of drawings that move, but the art of movements that are drawn.” (McLaren, cited in Wigan, 2007: p101)
Dooley 2010 poses the question “Is Animation the Future of Illustration?” the reason for this question’s proposition is due to the change towards digital technology. Traditional mediums such as books could not facilitate animation, so illustrations and photography where the widely used mediums when it came to providing visual content, digital platforms can feature animation or photographical equivalent video and some believe that these are more appropriate visual mediums for digital platforms. Dooley asks many of the conference attendees for their views on whether animation is the future of illustration. Scott Gandell is a print maker and illustrator, whilst also holding the post of President of the Society of Illustrators of Los Angeles. Gandell notes that this was also a hot topic of conversation between people informally at the conference and in his opinion the “the transformation from 2D editorial illustration to an animated hybrid online is the future”. He believes “illustrators need to be capable-ready to produce an eye catching, click stopping, reader grabbing piece of genius … that moves.” Gandell, cited in Dooley, (2010), http://www.printmag.com/interviews/icon-reax-is-animation-the-future-of-illustration/
Illustrator Steve Simpson said:
“The ICON audience seemed split on the issue. Some thought this a great opportunity to get into animation, others were horrified at the prospect of learning new packages and skills – would the extra work mean more money? There was also the suggestion we should dump our outdated title, “illustrator,” and call ourselves visual communicators or creative visualists.” Simpson, cited in Dooley, (2010), http://www.printmag.com/interviews/icon-reax-is-animation-the-future-of-illustration/
Illustration historian and artist, Jaleen Grove notes the discussion worried some illustrators saying “The discussion provoked controversy because it suggested that if illustrators didn’t embrace change and make their work move and groove, then they might as well retire now.” Grove goes on to explain that this may not be the impending apocalypse of illustration “illustrators have been told to reinvent illustration with every new advance in technology. And each time, that’s what they have done.” Grove, cited in Dooley, (2010), http://www.printmag.com/interviews/icon-reax-is-animation-the-future-of-illustration/
Illustrator and designer, Carolyn Endacott agrees that the publishing industries movement into the digital realm is going to allow it to reach larger audiences and it has the potential to do so in new innovative ways but she also sees a position in the market place for the “printed magazine” and the static – non-animated – image. Saying “In a world of constantly moving images and “in-your-face graphics,” the beauty and strength of illustration lies in the idea-concept and the ability for a moment, however brief, to have the viewer pause and think.” She goes on to say “There is a place for both the digital and static image and quite possibly, a relationship may develop where the two strengthen each other.” Endacott, cited in Dooley, (2010), http://www.printmag.com/interviews/icon-reax-is-animation-the-future-of-illustration/
As an illustrator and educator at CSU Fullerton, Cliff Cramp has a more optimistic view on the topic, explaining how new technologies have always influenced arts like illustration but not necessarily in a negative way:
“The key word for me that night was “possibilities.” New technologies provide varied possibilities for the delivery of our content. The fax machine allowed illustrators to fax comps to a client rather than drive them over. Product Illustrators produced line art of merchandise for wholesale companies so that catalogs could be faxed to retailers. The Internet has allowed the illustrator to have a global audience, shrinking their world while broadening their possibilities. Email and social media have allowed the illustrator to have more opportunities to connect with their peers. For some, new technologies will mean new ways to produce art. For others, new technologies will mean new uses for their art.” Cramp, cited in Dooley, (2010), http://www.printmag.com/interviews/icon-reax-is-animation-the-future-of-illustration/
Illustrator Teri Farrell-Gittins also sees the potential offered by new emerging technologies, with the point of view that these technologies will always need creative people capable of producing visual communication, so providing more jobs and more opportunities. ZFarrell-Gittins, cited in Dooley, (2010), http://www.printmag.com/interviews/icon-reax-is-animation-the-future-of-illustration/
I do not believe that digital platforms mean the end of illustration, and those that believe this I fear may be being blinded by the technological possibilities. With multimedia you do not have to use all the mediums because they are available but you do have the ability to use them when they are appropriate, one medium may be more effective than another in certain situations. Illustration is a medium that has a place in multimedia applications, animation also has a place and in my opinion animation should only be used when it can communicate more information than an illustration, or communicate the information more effectively to the viewing audience. These decisions on medium appropriateness require knowledge of the communicative possibilities within each specific medium, so that informed decisions can be made when designing the communication process.
The design of the communication process is an important part of visual communication but there is another part of the process that is vitally important and that is the technical production of desired media. A certain level of proficiency in the medium you are producing is needed to create effective results; when it comes to illustrating and animating it’s not simply a case of drawing pretty pictures, a design process is used by practitioners of these fields to methodically produce designs appropriate for their purpose, research is a key area of any design process.
Wigans (2006: p93-97) features a discussion with illustrator Marc Baines who describes the research process he used for a comic book series entitled ‘The Romans in Britain’. Baines describes how he read a book the 1945 Pelican classic ‘Britain’s Under the Romans and Rome 753BC-AD180’, he also watched films such as the 1945 ‘Ceasar and Cleopatra’ starring Claude Rains. Baines also visited museums and used Google image search. This process is very similar to the process I have undertaken throughout this project. I also started off looking at pre-existing children’s literature relating to my Viking theme (see here), I also looked at the portrayal of Vikings in film and popular culture (see here), I visited museums and galleries and I also have made good use of Google image search as you can see in the mood boards I have created below: Wigan 2006
The ability to create consistent, effective and eye-catching imagery is also important when it comes to communicating visually, especially when the audience are children. Wigan (2006: p88) agrees, he says “Characters in children’s illustration need to be appealing and represented consistently throughout.”
In the past, the production of visual communicative media has relied upon drawing. The Free Dictionary defines drawing as “The art of representing objects or forms on a surface chiefly by means of lines.” The Free Dictionary, (2013) http://www.thefreedictionary.com/drawing
Wigan (2009: p86) defines Drawing as “The act of applying direct marks or lines across a surface by using tools such as a pencil, pen and ink, charcoal or crayons”
“Drawing is fundamental to the fabric of illustration. Once you have changed many of the perceived notions of ‘what drawing is’… you can get on with the task of exploring a visual language. Our answers are found in manipulating a medium: they can often start with a pencil and a piece of paper. Drawing the world around us lets us see the world.” (O’Shaughnessy, cited in Wigan, 2006: p33)
Wigan (2009: p86) says “Drawing is the foundation of all forms of visual art and pictorial representation”
Often in the past I have been criticised for my lack of traditional pencil/pen and paper work. Yes, they are tools I often avoid as I struggle to transfer my thoughts using that medium. I don’t like writing on paper nor do I particularly enjoy drawing with a pen or pencil but that does not mean that I don’t like to put down my thoughts in words nor does it mean that I don’t like to be creative visually.
At school before the time of easy access to computers I struggled with written work, my hand writing was poor and I didn’t like doing it. In my art lessons I was never a great at drawing but I did enjoy and seemed to very creative and proficient when it came to printing, modelling and other creative art processes. I am not ready to describe myself as an illustrator but I have been looking at illustration theory, techniques and I am creating my own digital illustrations. The digital nature of my work suits the medium on which the illustrations will be displayed but Wigan explains that illustrations “can be created in any medium.” He then goes on to explain that my choice of medium is important but not to others, to me. He says “It is important to experiment with a broad range and choose the type of medium that is most appropriate to you.” Wigan (2006: p120)
Although Wigan’s statement is contradicted by the views of other illustrators featured in his book, Mick Brownfield, Cited in Wigan (2006: p126) believes students need to “learn how to draw properly and not rely on technical aids (the computer)”, Laura Smith, cited in Wigan, (2006: p126) has a similar point of view “I would advise students to understand that computers are just another tool and not rely on them at the exclusion of all else.”
My approach may seem to be one that excludes non digital tools but this is not actually the case, I have attended life drawing classes and I have copious amounts of learn to draw books that I use to try and improve my drawing skills but it is a medium that I do not use as often as others.
I remember a former tutor of mine explaining that it is the quickest method to work on ideas but this is something I would dispute. It is the quickest method if you have the required amount of skill to reproduce what you are seeing in the eye of your mind using those tools, if not it can be a frustrating and embarrassing method of communication. I would never say one method is better than another but it is fair to say that some mediums are more appropriate for certain situations and it is also fair to say that some illustrators/designers are more suited to specifics tools and mediums. This in no way should devalue the quality of anybody’s work but instead we should remember Wigan’s statement “It is important to experiment with a broad range and choose the type of medium that is most appropriate to you.” (Wigan, 2006: p120).
The main focus of my exploration into illustration is to understand how to communicate visually. This is a very important part of my master’s study, as I am looking to communicate information in the best possible ways through my application and communicating visually through illustration and animation will play an important role in my application. When Wigan asked illustrators from all over the world what they felt illustration students needed to learn visual communication was a common theme in there replies, Peter Grundy (2006: p128) says “An ability to entertain and communicate.” Gina Triplett believes “Students of illustration need to know how to communicate visual ideas in a manner that sets their work apart from their peers.” Anthony Burrill says “How to communicate with other people visually and verbally.” (2006: p131)
I am attempting to learn to communicate more effectively through visual and interactive media, this is essential not only to my master’s project but to my overall practice as an interactive multimedia designer. Wigan (2006: p12) says “Learning to think visually is a skill that must be practiced daily.” I believe he is right but I do not believe this is simply drawing or producing every day, researching past, current or potential methods of visual communication is also, in my opinion a great way of “Learning to think visually” but this does not just mean sitting in a library, reading a book, magazine or newspaper or trawling the internet; it can be as simple as walking down the street and watching how the world connects, looking at the advert on the side of a bus as it passes or watching how people interact with each other or artefacts of both digital and non digital nature.
Wigan (2006: p12) says “In order to communicate, elucidate, give insight to and illuminate, the illustrator must be interested in humanity and in literature. Intellectual curiosity, hard work, ambition and passion are all essential”.
To be a successful visual communicator it is important that you are interested in communicating, to have the passion to look beyond the simple dynamics of life and delve deeper into the nature of communicative experiences. The desire to learn more and the ability to motivate yourself to actively pursue this quest for knowledge is needed, in order to keep coming up with effective communication processes relevant for differing audiences, through differing platforms, regardless of technological innovation.
The knowledge of how to juxtapose differing visual mediums, in order to communicate on a level beyond that of any single medium is going to be essential in a future containing digital multimedia. So it will be essential to have a knowledge of more than one medium but the ability to not get consumed by the lure of the “doing thing because you can” scenario is also essential, creative’s should practice restraint when it comes to new technology and make decisions based upon effectiveness. Communicating visually will always be a vitally important process whether it is pencil and paper, chalk and board, 2D or 3D, static or animated, digital or non-digital.
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